net gain before subtracting the loss
money flowing into some government or administration cash by taxation
- ttbc Bulgarian: доход (dóχod)
- ttbc Chinese: 收支 (shouzhi)
- ttbc Dutch: opbrengst
- ttbc Estonian: tulu
- ttbc French: revenu
- ttbc German: Einkommen
- ttbc Italian: reddito
- ttbc Korean: 수익
- ttbc Latin: vectigal nominative, vectigalis genitive
- ttbc Malay: Pendapatan
- ttbc Norwegian: inntekt
- ttbc Polish: dochód
- ttbc Portuguese: faturamento
EtymologyFeminine form of past participle of verb revenir
In business, revenue or revenues (turnover in Europe) is income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers. Some companies also receive revenue from interest, dividends or royalties paid to them by other companies. Revenue may refer to business income in general, or it may refer to the amount, in a monetary unit, received during a period of time, as in "Last year, Company X had revenue of $32 million."
Profits or net income generally mean total revenue minus total expenses in a given period. In accounting and financial analysis, revenue is often referred to as the "top line" due to its position on the income statement at the very top. This is to be contrasted with the "bottom line" which denotes net income.
For non-profit organizations, annual revenue may be referred to as gross receipts. This revenue includes donations from individuals and corporations, support from government agencies, income from activities related to the organization's mission, and income from fundraising activities, membership dues, and financial investments such as stock shares in companies. For government, revenue includes gross proceeds from income taxes on companies and individuals, excise duties, customs duties, other taxes, sales of goods and services, dividends and interest.
UsageIn general usage, revenue is income received by an organization in the form of cash or cash equivalents. Sales revenue or revenues is income received from selling goods or services over a period of time. Tax revenue is income that a government receives from taxpayers.
In more formal usage, revenue is a calculation or estimation of periodic income based on a particular standard accounting practice or the rules established by a government or government agency. Two common accounting methods, cash basis accounting and accrual basis accounting, do not use the same process for measuring revenue. Corporations that offer shares for sale to the public are usually required by law to report revenue based on generally accepted accounting principles or International Financial Reporting Standards.
In a double-entry bookkeeping system, revenue accounts are general ledger accounts that are summarized periodically under the heading Revenue or Revenues on an income statement. Revenue account names describe the type of revenue, such as "Repair service revenue", "Rent revenue earned" or "Sales".
Business revenueBusiness revenue is income from activities that are ordinary for a particular corporation, company, partnership, or sole-proprietorship. For some businesses, such as manufacturing and/or grocery, most revenue is from the sale of goods. Service businesses such as law firms and barber shops receive most of their revenue from rendering services. Lending businesses such as car rentals and banks receive most of their revenue from fees and interest generated by lending assets to other organizations or individuals.
Revenues from a business's primary activities are reported as Sales, Sales revenue or Net sales. This excludes product returns and discounts for early payment of invoices. Most businesses also have revenue that is incidental to the business's primary activities, such as interest earned on deposits in a demand account. This is included in revenue but not included in Net Sales. Sales revenue does not include sales tax collected by the business.
Other Revenue (a.k.a. Non-Operating Revenue) is revenue from peripheral (non-core) operations. For example, a company that manufactures and sells automobiles would record the revenue from the sale of an automobile as “’regular’” revenue. If that same company also rented a portion of one of its buildings, it would record that revenue as “other revenue” and disclose it separately on its income statement to show that it is from something other than its core operations.
A public company reports its total annual revenues based on its fiscal year. Public companies also report quarterly revenues.
Revenue recognition and unearned revenuemain article revenue recognition Standards vary as to when revenue should be recognized. The Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (FASB) Statement of Financial Accounting Concept 5 states that revenues should be recognized when they are “realized or realizable” and “earned”. Revenues are “realized or realizable” when products are exchanged for assets (such as cash) or claims to assets (such as promises to pay). Revenues are “earned” when the entity has performed all duties necessary to the purchaser.
Often one of the two situations will arise but not both. If assets are received before revenue is earned, a liability account is created called Unearned revenue. An example of when this would happen is in the event of magazine subscriptions: suppose a company sold 12 month magazine subscriptions on July 1, 2005 for $10,000 cash. At the company’s year end, December 31, the company is still obligated to deliver 6 months, or $5,000, worth of magazines to subscribers. In this case, the company would recognize $5,000 as revenue for 2005, and $5,000 would be seen in the liability account Unearned revenue. A similar situation occurs when a property-casualty insurance enterprise receives premium at the start of the period insured. The insurer establishes an "unearned premium reserve" for the portion of the premium pro-rated for the unexpired portion of the policy period. (See earned premium.)
In general, for US GAAP purposes, revenue should be recognized at time of delivery of the goods or performance of the service. If cash is received prior to this time, revenue is unearned. If cash has not yet been received at time of performance, the asset account Accounts receivable is used to record the revenue. This is in contrast to IRS revenue recognition policies, which call for revenues to be recognized on a cash received basis. In the above magazine example, the company would have to pay taxes on $10,000 of "revenue" for 2005.
Financial analysismain article financial analysis Revenue is a crucial part of financial analysis. A company’s performance is measured to the extent to which its asset inflows (revenues) compare with its asset outflows (expenses). Net Income is the result of this equation, but revenue typically enjoys equal attention during a standard earnings call. If a company displays solid “top-line growth,” analysts could view the period’s performance as positive even if earnings growth, or “bottom-line growth” is stagnant. Conversely, high income growth would be tainted if a company failed to produce significant revenue growth. Consistent revenue growth, as well as income growth, is considered essential for a company's publicly traded stock to be attractive to investors.
Revenue is used as an indication of earnings quality. There are several financial ratios attached to it, the most important being gross margin and profit margin. Also, companies use revenue to determine bad debt expense using the income statement method.
Price / Sales is sometimes used as a substitute for a Price to earnings ratio when earnings are negative and the P/E is meaningless. Though a company may have negative earnings, it almost always has positive revenue.
Gross Margin is a calculation of revenue less Cost of Goods Sold, and is used to determine how well sales cover direct variable costs relating to the production of goods.
Net Income / Sales, or Profit margin, is calculated by investors to determine how efficiently a company turns revenues into profits.
Government revenueGovernment revenue comes primarily from taxes but includes all amounts of money received from sources outside the government entity. Large governments usually have an agency or department responsible for collecting government revenue from companies and individuals
Notes and references
revenue in Danish: Omsætning
revenue in German: Erlös
revenue in Spanish: ingresos
revenue in French: Chiffre d'affaires
revenue in Indonesian: Pendapatan
revenue in Italian: Fatturato
revenue in Dutch: Omzet
revenue in Japanese: 収益
revenue in Norwegian: Omsetning
revenue in Polish: Przychód (ekonomia)
revenue in Portuguese: Receita (economia)
revenue in Slovak: Výnos (opak nákladov)
revenue in Finnish: Liikevaihto
revenue in Swedish: Omsättning
revenue in Ukrainian: Дохід
revenue in Chinese: 收入
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